A NAMA is a Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action, a concept introduced at the Conference of the Parties (COP) in Bali in 2007 as a means for developing countries to establish the mitigation actions that they were willing to take as part of their contribution to a global effort. It was also agreed that NAMAs in developing countries should have an impact that could be measured, reported and verified (MRV), to ensure that all implemented measures effectively and efficiently contribute to the global climate response, and that industrialized nations support all mitigation efforts carried out by developing countries. NAMAs may be policies aimed at transformational change within a certain economic sector, or actions across different sectors for a broader national scope. They are supported and enabled by technology, financing and capacity building, and they are aimed at achieving a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions related to “business-as-usual” emissions by the year 2020.
NAMA Support Projects (NSP), funded by the NAMA Facility, are projects that will support governments in the implementation of the most ambitious sections of their NAMAs by providing financial support and instruments of technical cooperation. The NAMA Facility was established by the German Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation, Construction and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) and the Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) of the United Kingdom, and is co-financed by the Danish government and the EU Commission. It provides financial support to developing countries and emerging economies demonstrating leadership in the fight against climate change and wishing to enforce transformational NAMAs led by countries within the global mitigation architecture. The Facility calls for competitive proposals and selects the most ambitious and promising NAMA Support Projects for funding.
The implementation of the NAMA Café de Costa Rica is supported by the “Costa Rican Low-Carbon Coffee” Support Project, financed by BMUB and BEIS. The NSP is implemented by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH and financed by the NAMA Facility. It was developed by the BMUB/ICI Project “Programa ACCIÓN Clima”, which was also implemented by GIZ in Costa Rica, in collaboration with the members of the NAMA Café’s Board of Directors. Among them are the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock (MAG), the Ministry of Environment and Energy (MINAE), the Costa Rica Coffee Institute (ICAFE), and Development Cooperation Fund (Fundecooperación para el Desarrollo).
Costa Rican coffee is well known for its high quality, and coffee production has historically been linked closely to the country’s national identity. Coffee exports have made an vital contribution to the country’s GDP until the mid-20th century. Since then, coffee production in Costa Rica has suffered different crises, such as the collapse of coffee prices in the world market in the 80s and, more recently, the re-emergence of Roya, a fungal disease that affected more than 60% of Costa Rican crops in 2013. Coffee is the major agricultural product in Costa Rica, grown in over 20% of the country’s agricultural area (93,774 ha).
By law, the country allows the production of Arabica coffee only, and most production areas are located from 800 to 1,800 meters above sea level. The mountainous lands where coffee is grown and the costly manual labor result in high production costs. Other threats to the sector include urbanization processes, mainly in the greater region of the Central Valley of San José, which invades coffee-growing areas. Also, young people are decreasingly interested in continuing coffee growing activities, especially in small farms. Additionally, the coffee sector is affected by high levels of soil acidity in some regions and threatened by climate change. Although coffee production suffered a 5% decrease since 2011, its productivity has grown as coffee production increased by 25% during said period.